Orangutans and the other great apes, including humans, are the most intelligent beings to have evolved on land. As individuals, orangutans display unique and rich personalities. They also provide models for human evolution, in terms of physiology and cognition. As great apes, orangutans are sentient beings who deserve respect and life.
On this page you can learn more about what makes the magnificent red ape so unique and the factors that continue to threaten its survival in the wild.
Orangutan Species Information and Facts
Fossil evidence suggests that during the Pleistocene era - between around 1.8 million years and 11,500 years ago - orangutans lived throughout much of Southeast Asia, from Java in the south, up into Laos and southern China. In 1900, there were approximately 315,000 orangutans.
Orangutans are the largest arboreal mammal in the world. Their preferred habitat is low-lying peat-swamp forest - they are rarely found in habitats over an altitude of 800m.
Primarily frugivorous, orangutans have an important role as seed dispersers. They selectively choose ripe fruit whose seeds are adapted to withstand passage through the orangutans' gut. Once the seeds have passed through the gut, they find themselves in their own little compost pile, which helps them to become established.
Orangutans are wholly dependent on trees for their existence. They are perfectly adapted to life in the forest - they sleep in nests, feed predominantly on fruit and travel with ease through the forest canopy, rarely descending to the forest floor.
Threats to Orangutan Habitat
Orangutans are classified as two separate species. Separated geographically by islands, one is found on Borneo and the other on Sumatra. The IUCN (Redlist 2007) classify Bornean orangutans, which are divided into three sub-species, as endangered and Sumatran orangutans as critically endangered.
Rehabilitation is the process by which orphaned, confiscated or injured orangutans are returned to a life in the wild. Usually, it starts when Forestry Department officials seize an illegally held orphan (orangutans are protected under law in Indonesia and Malaysia) and transfer he or she to a rehabilitation centre. Depending on the orangutans’ health and age they may require months of hand rearing and nursing. This can often mean 24-hour care.
Orangutan Conservation Links
Links to other orangutan and rainforest conservation organisations and bodies.